What Interpreters Do
Interpreters speak, read, and write in at least two languages fluently.
Interpreters typically have the following duties:
- Convert concepts in the source language to equivalent concepts in the target language
- Speak, read, and write fluently in at least two languages, including English in the US and one or more others
- Relay style and tone
- Manage their time to meet work schedules
- Render spoken ideas accurately, quickly, and clearly
Interpreters deal with spoken words to convert information from one spoken language into another—or, in the case of sign language interpreters, between spoken language and sign language.
Interpreters must be fluent speakers or signers of both languages because they communicate back and forth among the people who do not share each other’s language.
There are two modes of interpreting: simultaneous and consecutive.
Simultaneous interpreting requires interpreters to listen or watch and speak or sign at the same time someone is speaking or signing. Simultaneous interpreting requires a high level of concentration. For that reason, simultaneous interpreters usually work in pairs, each interpreting for about 20 to 30 minutes and then resting while the other interprets.
In contrast, consecutive interpreting begins only after the speaker has said or signed a group of words or sentences. Consecutive interpreters often take notes while listening to or watching the speakers, so they must develop some type of notetaking or shorthand system.
Interpreters’ and translators’ services are needed in a number of subject areas. Although these workers often do not specialize in any particular field or industry, many focus on one area of expertise.
The following are examples of occupational specialties:
Health or medical interpreters typically work in healthcare settings and help patients communicate with doctors, nurses, and other medical staff. Interpreters must have a strong grasp of medical terminology and the common words for those medical terms in both languages. Health or medical interpreters must also have sensitivity to participate in patients’ personal situations with healthcare providers. Request a Medical Interpreter.
Legal or judiciary interpreters typically work in courts and other legal settings. At hearings, arraignments, depositions, and trials, they help people who have limited English proficiency. They must understand legal terminology. Many court interpreters must sometimes read documents aloud in a language other than that in which they were written, a task known as sight translation. Request a Court Interpreter.
Sign language interpreters help people who are deaf or hard of hearing and people who can hear communicate with each other. Sign language interpreters must be fluent in English and in American Sign Language (ASL), which combines signing, finger spelling, and specific body language. ASL is a separate language from English with its own grammar.
Some interpreters specialize in other forms of interpreting for people who are deaf or hard of hearing. Request a Sign Language Interpreter.
Some people who are deaf or hard of hearing lip-read English instead of signing in ASL. Interpreters who work with these people do “oral interpretation,” mouthing speech silently and very carefully so their lips can be read easily. They may also use facial expressions and gestures to help the lip-reader understand.
Other specialties include using cued speech, which uses hand shapes placed near the mouth to give lip-readers more information; signing exact English; and tactile signing, which is interpreting for people who are blind as well as deaf by making hand signs into the deaf-blind person’s hand.
Guide or escort interpreters accompany either U.S. visitors abroad or foreign visitors in the United States to ensure that they are able to communicate during their stay. These specialists interpret informally and on a professional level. Frequent travel for these workers is common.
Conference interpreters work at conferences that have non-English-speaking attendees. The work is often in the field of international business or diplomacy, although conference interpreters can interpret for any organization that works with speakers of foreign languages. Employers prefer high-level interpreters who have the ability to translate from at least two languages into one native language—for example, the ability to interpret from Spanish and French into English. For some positions, such as those with the United Nations, this qualification is required.
Conference interpreters often do simultaneous interpreting. People at the conference who do not understand the language of the speaker wear earphones tuned to the interpreter who speaks the language they want to hear. The interpreter listens to a bit of the speaker’s talk and then translates that bit. Simultaneous interpreters must be able to listen to the next bit the speaker is saying while translating the previous bit of what the speaker said.
*Some information on this page is courtesy of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.